What turns you on the most?
For most people it is seeing a hot person from the opposite gender but for me it’s the naked science. Or say the quantum physics. Quantum physics is like looking at the universe naked (ohh yeah! Soo hot!!).
Let’s talk something about everyone’s favourite leitmotif in the science that is “The Time Travel” from the discoveries and the theories by my personal science hero Stephen Hawkings whose science hero was Albert Einstein. (No this guy didn’t invent the hawking pressure cooker)
So first of all what is time?
Time is the module used for the measurement of various sequential events, to compare the duration of the events or to find out the interval in them. It is also known as the 4th dimension of our universe. Now what is the 4th dimension? There are 10 dimensions discovered by the physicist out of which 3 are very common. They are the length, breadth, height or depth and the 4th one being time. (We won’t go to the next dimensions now because they are very complicated)
Let’s take an example to understand it better. Suppose I ask you to go straight 100 meters you will be travelling in a single dimension that is the “Length”. Then I ask you to turn right and go straight 50 meters, you have added a second dimension or s direction to the length and it is the “Breadth”. After you travel 50 meters to left I then ask you to dig 3 meters deep and that’s the fourth dimension that is the “height” or “depth” and in this case it is the “depth”. Now I will ask you to wait for me there for half an hour then that is the fourth dimension “Time”. Let’s say you waited there for 30 minutes and then I ask you to go back to where you were at first. Then first you will get out of the 3 meter deep hole and fill it back with the soil, then you go back 50 meters straight, and then turn left and move 100 meters straight and you have reached the point where you were before. Well not exactly you did go back on the first 3 dimensions but what about the 4th dimension? Did you go back in time? Nope. You just are in future.
Which means you can travel in the opposite direction in the first 3 dimensions but travelling back on the fourth one has not been possible yet. So time travels only in one direction.
So is time travel possible? Theoretically yes it is. But practically?? Is going into the past or future possible within the laws of nature? Let’s see. There are 3 possible practical ways by which travelling through time is actually possible. (This is getting exiting)
- This is one of the ways to possibly travel through time with the help of nature and the scientist has even given it a name that is the “Worm Hole” which bends the space and time.
- The worm holes are all around us but they are so unbelievably small that they are impossible to see. Take a lemon for example. It looks smooth from the outside but when you enlarge it to the size of earth it will be having a surface much rougher than our earth.
- Just like the tiny rough surface in the lemon, the worm holes are very tiny and they are everywhere in the space and time.
- There are tiny voids in the space and time, down at the smallest of scales, even smaller than the molecules, smaller than atoms is a place called the “quantum foams” which is also known as the “space time foams” which is a concept in the quantum devised by john wheeler in 1955.
- The quantum foams are where the worm holes exist. Very tiny tunnels or short cuts through space and time. But unfortunately these natural time travelling tunnels are a billion, trillion trillion times smaller than the size of a centimeter. Impossibly small for a human to pass through it.
- But what if we capture the tiny tunnel and enlarge it trillions and trillions of time and make it big enough for a human or even a space ship to pass through.
- The way it works is that when you enter into a wormhole you reach a distant future at the other side of the wormhole.
- Now you realize that thinking in four dimensions is not an easy concept and the wormhole is tricky enough to wrap your head around.
- But there still exist a confusing problem with the wormhole which will prevent the invention of wormhole from happening at any time in future. And it is the “paradoxes”.
- This problem with wormhole has been giving the scientist a nightmare and the reason it the wormhole can’t exist is because of the feedback.
- Have you studied about the theory of feedback in amplifier? I am sure you might have or you will study in school.
- For example, in a rock band when the singer sings through the microphone it is transmitted along the wires and goes into the amplifier where it is enlarged and made louder and comes out through the speakers.
- But when there is too much of the sound for the speakers it goes back to the microphone, and then back to the amplifier and goes round and round making the sound louder every time and when finally you will hear the loud irritating screeching noise. This process happens very very fast.
- It is somewhat similar that happens in the wormhole only with the radiations instead of sound.
- What if natural radiations enter the wormhole and then get into a continuous loop resulting in a strong feedback that will completely destroy the wormhole. (This just doesn’t make any sense)
- So that means creating a wormhole is practically not possible. Well this is a disappointment for dinosaur lovers like me and a big relief for the primitive men because we won’t be going into the past screwing with their life anytime in future.
- But don’t lose hope completely yet. There is still another possible theory to time travel.
2) The Black Hole
- Have you seen the interstellar movie? it is one of my personal favorite and the way they have presented the black hole and wormhole and its effect are breath taking.
- The black holes are the natural time altering objects situated light years away from our planet. (light year is a measurement of distance, 1 light year = distance travelled by light in a year that is 9.46 x 10^12)
- This idea was first proposed by Albert Einstein a 100 years ago. He said there are places in the universe where the time slows down he was absolutely and there are proofs that are right above our heads. Up in the space (light years away in the sky)
- The picture given above is the global positioning system. Or the GPS which is a network of many satellites orbiting around the earth.
- These satellites make the satellite navigation possible for us.
- But a mysterious fact they also reveal is that the time runs faster in the space that it does down on earth. And it is not due to the technical difficulty they run fast because the time itself runs faster on space.
- Inside every space satellites is a very accurate clock and despite their high amount of accuracy they all gain 3rd of a billion of a second every day. Which is an unimaginably tiny amount of change but it still provides us with information that the time on earth is comparatively slower than that on space by an extremely small margin.
- And the reason for this effect is obviously the mass and gravitational pull of the earth.
- The heavier the object the more it drags time down. This opens the door towards possibility of time travel to the future.
- So what we need for time travelling is much more massive having high gravitational force than the earth or even the sun. And that one perfect thing in the universe is the “abominable black hole”.
- Black hole is almost equal to the mass of 4 million suns crushed down into a very tiny point by its own gravity.
- When you get close to the black hole the stronger you feel the black holes and get closer not even the light can escape their gravity.
- A black powerful hole has the ability to slow down the time dramatically slowing it down more than anything else in the galaxy. And this power of black hole is what makes it a natural time machine.
- Let’s say if man succeeds to build a space ship powerful enough to get into a trajectory of the black hole by not getting sucked in and starts travelling in that trajectory where it is safe enough. (Just like the trajectory of moon for earth and trajectory of earth for revolving around the sun without getting sucked in by gravity)
- Now for the brave spacemen on the on the spaceship the “Time” would be slowed down for them.
- And here the effect will be far more extreme than the planet earth or the sun.
- The time in the spaceship would be slowed down by half of the time for the people on earth. Hence the ship and the crew would be travelling in through time.
- Imagine they circle the black hole for 10 years in the spaceship then when they return on earth 20 years would have passed by. Which means everyone on earth would be aged 20 years more than they have.
- They would have had made a journey not only in space but also in the time. The black hole is the natures time machine and of course it is not exactly possible because it is extremely dangerous. The technology to that limit is long way away and it also does not take us into a very far future.
- But don’t lose hope because there is still another way to travel through time.
3) The Mysterious Speed of Light
- Now this is our last and the best hope to travel in time. You all might be aware about the strange fact of the universe that there is a cosmic speed limit that is 186000 miles/sec.
- Nothing can cross this speed in the entire universe. This is actually the speed of light. Nothing can equal or exceed that speed.
- This is one of the best established principles in science ever.
- And travelling at the speed of light allows you to transport yourself in time. We will try to understand this by a fictional transportation system on the surface of earth.
- Imagine we build a vehicle with its own path right around the earth’s circumference. A super fast vehicle which can travel at the speed of light on its path.
- We are going to use this vehicle travelling at the speed of light and see how it works as a time machine having some passengers who are on a one way trip to the future (i.e. no returning to present).
- Now the time travelers are aboard and the vehicle starts and begins to accelerate faster and faster until it reaches the speed of light.
- As it gets closer to the speed of light it will be circling the earth over and over again.
- To approach the speed of light means you will be circling the earth about 7 times in a second. (Circumference of earth is 40075 km. Speed of light = 300000 km per/sec. So in one second it will cover the earth 300000/40075 ie 7 times in a second)
- And now when the vehicle gets to that speed something very extraordinary happens. The time starts slowing down very much in relative to the earth. Just like near the black hole only much more effective.
- The time slows down so that the laws of nature can protect the speed limit.
- This will increase the chances of travelling large distances into the future.
- Imagine the train left the station on January 1st 2020 they have circled the world for 100 years and they will reach a time that might be a new years eve on 2120.
- But the travelers on the vehicle would have aged only one week older since the day they left the station first.
- In a span on 1 week of their life they will have traveled one year into future.
- But the sad news is that the laws of physics will never allow us to quite reach the speed of light. This is as per Einstein’s theory anything even having the slightest of mass will never reach the speed of light.
- So as the possibility of the vehicle to be built anytime in future is next to impossible we yet have a machine which is very likely to this vehicle. That is at world’s largest particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva Switzerland where the particles are made to accelerate at a speed extremely close to the speed of light.
- So in order to travel into time we need to go fast. REALLY FAST. Which only on person can do and unfortunately he is just a fictional character.
- The fastest vehicle man has ever created was the appolo 10 which can reach the speed of a staggering 25000 miles per hour(40200km/hr). But to travel at the speed of time we will have to travel about 2000 times faster than that.
Our universe is really a strange place where the time runs at different speed at different places. and we live in an extremely curious world where the scientist are continuously gazing at the stars to learn and erudite about the universe. Physics is all about sucking the information out of mother nature’s bosom. I hope you enjoyed reading got some fruitful information from the luscious little amount of milk from the nature’s breast. In my next blog I will try to bring a new topic of exciting science and innovation that is going through in the world.